总 造 价：49.6万
主要材料：旧青砖、旧瓦、竹、毛石 主创团队：云南杨永铨建筑设计有限公司 总设计师：杨永铨
总 策 划：朱晓燕（石屏县博物馆馆长、石屏县文物管理所所长）
An Introduction to the Xiushan Temple Environmental Restoration Project: A Historical Zen Temple in the Mountains
Xiushan Temple is located 3.5 kilometers west of the Baoxiu Township of Shiping County. The temple faces north. “In the Wujiaying Village of the Baoxiu Township, sits Xiushan Mountain— also known as Jiuling Mountain. The temple on this mountain was built during the Tang Dynasty.” The excerpt above comes from the version of the “Shiping County Annals” that was written by Cheng Feng, Governor of Shiping, in Emperor Kangxi’s 12th reign year (1673 A.D.). An updated version of the annals was published in Emperor Qianlong’s 24th reign year (1759 A.D.). The 1759 version of the text reads: “The Xiushan Temple was built in Tang Dynasty. It was originally named Zhenjue Temple.”
This ancient temple is surrounded by a lush bamboo forest and some of the most elegant, otherworldly scenery. During every season of the year, there are some flowers that are in bloom on the mountain. Tu Yingheng, the Zhongyue Shanren, once wrote the two characters “秀山” （literally meaning “elegant mountain”）in wild cursive (caoshu) on the temple’s main gate. From that day on, people began to call the temple Xiushan Temple. In the late-Qing and early-Ming period, well-known calligraphers, including Chen Rongchang, Zhao Fan, Yuan Jiagu and others, wrote couplets referencing Xiushan Temple, which in turn contributed to the temple’s fame.
The Xiushan Temple is a historical and cultural site protected by the provincial-level government. The temple consists of the Main Gate, the Middle Hall, the Main Hall, the Lingyun Pavilion, and a garden that is adjacent to the pavilion.
At the foot of the mountain, there is a pond called the “Basin of Pure Water.” Adjacent to this pond stands a small hexagonal pavilion named the “Pavilion of Respite.” The couplet on this pavilion reads: “Why stay here when there is more to see up ahead?” The stone steps in the woods lead to the temple’s main gate. Above the gate hangs the lintel upon which the characters for “Xiushan” are written in forceful strokes. The character “xiu” (秀) appears like a beauty dancing in the wind, while “shan” (山) resembles a dragon ready to fly. In the courtyard before the middle hall, there are cherry trees from the Tang, plum trees from the Song, and arhat pines from the Yuan. It is said that the arhat pines were transplanted here over 600 years ago by Xu Xiake when he was traveling to the western source of the Nanpan River. In late winter and early spring, the people of Shiping are traditionally found appreciating the beauty of the temple’s plum trees’ blossoms. The ancient trees are robust as they grow verdant leaves year upon year. After making a visit to this temple, you will leave with a clear mind, free from trivial worries.
Inside the Middle Hall stand the statues of Gautama Buddha, Confucius, and Laozi, respectively, the founders of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. These statues exemplify the melding of cultures that took place in Shiping during the Ming and Qing. Adjacent to the Main Hall is a verdant grove of green plum trees, cassia bark trees, and camellia flowers. Here, you can experience a tranquility of old and come closer to understanding Zen, often allegorized as a lotus flower. Hanging on the pillars before the hall is a couplet written by Yuan Jiagu. The couplet reads: “Among all the beautiful places, I love Xiushan Mountain most of all. With its wind and moon, its temple and scenery, and its ringing bell. Who from the twelve villages wrote the words ‘mulberry and sesame leaves green as rain, working in the soil, yellow as the clouds’ with such care during the imperial exam?”
The three-story tall Lingyun Pavilion, with a mountain behind it, stands to the west of the Main Hall. At the sides of the path to the pavilion are green plum trees and Fangsheng Pond (to release fish into). Observed from the top of the pavilion, the small Baoxiu plain can be seen as it is located in a spot that is surrounded by mountains and fields. The twelve villages of Baoxiu are located around this small plain. Secular life is not very far from this ancient temple.
At the end of 2015, entrusted by Shiping’s Bureau of Culture, Sports, Radio and Television, Yang Yongquan Architecture Firm designed and implemented the Xiushan Temple Environmental Restoration Project.
After a year of field surveys, mapping, and collecting information, we suggested “reviving the temple through design.” The design and plans for restoration combined the spectacular traditions of the temple with contemporary aesthetics. In this way, we aimed to revive and rejuvenate the temple, while encouraging the beliefs and people—once dislocated from the surrounding area—to return. The restoration appeals to modern sensibilities, while still respecting the history of the temple. Thus the restoration has made the religious and cultural significance of the temple more inclusive.
Fully considering the temple’s status as a historical and cultural site protected by the provincial government, the firm has valued the temple’s original style and features. The restoration has not damaged the outer walls nor reduced the size of the green plum tree grove and Fangsheng Pond. We tidied up the open space on both sides of the Lingyun Pavilion and removed weeds from around the green plum tree grove. We removed some of the mao bamboos near the pond too. The outdated and unusable restroom facilities, built in the 90’s, were demolished and the garbage on the slope north of the pond was removed. During the construction process, we used as much of the old materials as possible, including wood, stone, and blue brick.
We took the surrounding environment, including the pond’s water quality, into account when we constructed a retaining wall to reinforce and expand the northern slope. To make full use of the newly expanded and enforced slope, we designed three concealed rooms for Zen meditation, located within the slope. The traditional plum-blossom-shaped bricks were used on the meditation rooms’ walls to let sunlight flow in and create a beautiful mystique. This design enables the rooms’ view from the inside to blend with the outside scenery. Above the Zen meditation rooms, there are two viewing areas for visitors and Buddhist practitioners. The meditation rooms’ design is in line with the ideas of lonely shanshui scenery.
The project was completed in March 2017. Walking from Lingyun Pavilion to Fangsheng Pond, you will pass the Purple Bamboo Garden, the Green Plum Tree Grove, Fangsheng Pond and the Zen Meditation Rooms. This layout is meant to highlight the original features of the temple and showcase them according to height. The Lingyun Pavilion is now spacious and clear, as it blends with the surrounding woods and the temple’s eastern buildings. The space use and construction style complement one another while allowing for the continued use of the temple’ historic function. In terms of management and development, the restoration meets the needs of the monks, lay Buddhists, and Buddhist practitioners. It also meets the needs of the average tourist, as it provides a refuge for relaxation and meditation.
Through this restoration project, we have come to better understand how people of the past respected, supported and protected nature and culture. We have also come to understand the importance of treating nature and cultural relics with respect. This attitude is essential to preserving cultural relics, and to Chinese culture itself.